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Topics and Themes

Explore over 100 collections of websites brought together by librarians, curators and other experts in response to a wide range of events and diverse topics and themes.
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  • 19th Century English Literature

    Resources relating to 19th century English literature and literary figures curated by staff at the British Library in the early 2000's. The collection includes websites devoted to author societies, themed events, anniversary and other news coverage, adaptations, interpretations, museums and fan sites, as well as academic sites.
  • Aging

    This collection looks at aging issues from a number of contexts. The collection covers health and social care, intergenerational relationships, housing, pensions and finance, social life and leisure activities, assistive technologies and the representation of older people in literature, the arts and media. Research into the biological mechanisms of aging and age-related diseases are also considered. The collection includes websites published by academic organisations, research centres, think tanks, advocacy groups, service providers and local and central government.
  • Arnhem 75

    This is a collection of websites relating to the 75th anniversary of Operation Market Garden and the Battle of Arnhem. Operation Market Garden was a failed World War II military operation fought in the Netherlands from 17 to 25 September 1944. The collection reflects how Operation Market Garden was remembered within the UK Web Space during 2019. It is curated by staff at the Royal Air Force Museum and the British Library and is intended provide a corpus of websites which capture as many aspects of the anniversary as possible. Arnhem75 Collection - Scoping Document:
  • Black and Asian Britain

    Collection focussing on Black and Asian communities and culture in the UK as well as the history of the Black and Asian presence in the UK.
  • Blogs

    The UK Blogosphere (connected community of Web logs) has burgeoned since the late 1990s and early 2000s, due in part to the advent of web publishing tools that facilitated the posting of content by non-technical users. Until 2009 Blogs were generally the work of a single author, in the 2010s Multi Author Blogs (MABs) developed. This collection curated by staff at the British Library from 2005 onwards, represents a cross section of UK Web logs containing a wealth of material which will be of value to researchers now and in the future. The collection contains a wide variety of Blogs from news and political commentaries, sports and music Blogs to personal online diaries.
  • Brexit

    Brexit is an abbreviation for "British exit," referring to the UK's decision in a June 23rd, 2016 referendum to leave the European Union (EU). This collection was initiated by staff at the Legal Deposit Libraries on 24th June 2016. It includes the websites of think tanks, interest groups, businesses and unions, news outlets, charities, politicians, political commentators, financial organisations. Websites have been selected across the spectrum of political opinion. This collection is divided into sub collections: Blogs and social media; Business & trade unions; Economic impact; Government & UK Parliamentary action; Interest groups; Legislation & legal implications; News and media, Political parties, Research centres & think tanks. Separate collections address the impact of Brexit on Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and Ireland. There is also a separate collection on the EU Referendum covering the period November 2015 - June 2016.
  • British Countryside

    Collection of Internet sites selected by staff at the British Library in the early 2000's around the theme of British Countryside intended to reflect a wide range of related issues such as rural economy, environment, wildlife, art, history and politics. Sites represent organisations such as wildlife groups; academic think tanks; agricultural consultants; national countryside groups, campaigning groups and tourist boards amongst others.
  • British Overseas Territories

    This is a collection of archived websites published in, and with information relating to, the British Overseas Territories (BOTS). The collection has been curated by staff at the British Library beginning in 2014. The British Overseas Territories (BOTs) are fourteen territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom, although they do not form part of the United Kingdom. Most of the permanently inhabited territories are internally self-governing, with the UK retaining responsibility for defence and foreign relations. Three are inhabited only by a transitory population of military or scientific personnel. They all share the British monarch (Elizabeth II) as head of state.
  • British Stand-up Comedy Archive

    The British Stand-Up Comedy Archive was established at the University of Kent in 2013 to celebrate, preserve, and provide access to the archives and records of British stand-up comedy and comedians. This Collection of websites has been curated by the BSUCA's Archivist to complement the physical collections held at the University of Kent.
  • Cambridge Science

    Cambridge has produced Nobel prize winning scientists and others of world renown. This collection, initiated in 2019 is being put together to recognise and preserve the scientific contribution of our academics. This collection will be lead by the Head of Physical Sciences at Cambridge and will include a wide range of contributors from across Cambridge University Library.
  • Caribbean Communities in the UK

    2018 marked 70 years since the Empire Windrush carried hundreds of Caribbean migrants to Britain. This collection of websites was initiated to accompany an exhibtion hosted by the British Library entitled "Windrush: Songs in a Strange Land" which explored why people came, what they left behind and how they went on to shape Britain. The website collection includes (but is not restricted to) themes such as ‘Windrush’; Arts, Literature and Music; Race Relations, West Indies in WWI and WWII.
  • Celtic Studies

    This is a collection of websites selected by a member of staff at the British Library, around the theme of Celtic Studies and includes websites on Celtic subjects, and/or sites providing a cultural sphere for ex-pat Celtic communities.
  • Children's Websites

    This collection of websites, curated by staff at the UK Legal Deposit Libraries, contains sites designed to be used by children as well as sites which deal with issues which affect children such as literacy and bullying.
  • Climate Change

    This collection focuses on climate change and related issues published in the UK. In 2021 the UK hosts the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of Parties (COP26) in Glasgow, 1-12 November 2021. This event is a significant global milestone in implementing the Paris Agreement (2015).
  • Cornwall

    This collection of websites, curated by staff at the British Library from 2005 onwards, focuses on Cornwall, the most south westerly county in the UK. It is intended to reflect a wide range of related issues such as economy, environment, culture, language, tourism and campaigning groups such as the self governing movement. The collection is ongoing.
  • Credit Crunch

    This collection of websites, covering the period July 2008 to January 2010 was initiated by staff at the British Library to reflect how the UK has been affected by the global financial crisis. The collection includes the websites of banks, corporations, local governments, consumer and financial advisory groups as well as blogs and commentaries.
  • Darwin 200

    The year 2009 marked the 200th anniversary of the birth of evolutionary biologist Charles Darwin and the 150th anniversary of the publication of his seminal work, 'On the Origin of Species'. A series of events was held globally to celebrate the 'Year of Darwin 2009' and to promote science in general. This collection of websites was curated by staff at the British Library.
  • Dickens Bicentenary

    The year 2012 marked the 200th anniversary of the birth of author Charles Dickens, one of the best known and best loved authors in English Literature. A series of events was held globally to celebrate Dicken's bicentenary. This collection of websites was curated by staff at the British Library.
  • District Councils

    Websites offering information about the services provided by Borough Councils together with minutes and papers presented to Committees. This collection was curated by staff at the British Library from 2015 onwards.
  • Duke of Edinburgh

    This collection of websites was curated by staff at the British Library in April 2021 to commemorate His Royal Highness Prince Philip the Duke of Edinburgh (10th June 1921 to 9th April 2021). It includes the websites of many of the organisations that the Duke was associated with during his lifetime, either as President, Patron, Honorary Member or in another capacity. The Duke had special interests in scientific and technological research and development, the welfare of young people, education, conservation, the environment and the encouragement of sport. The collection also includes statements from Commonwealth Organisations reflecting on the life of the Duke.
  • E-publishing Trends/Emerging Formats

    Electronic publishing refers to the digital publication of e-books and electronic articles and to the development of digital libraries and catalogues. E-publishing is a growing phenomenon which uses innovative technologies to enable individuals, scholars and communities to establish contacts, exchange data, and share knowledge. Many works, especially scientific journals and popular works of fiction are increasingly only published online. This collection of websites, curated by staff at the British Library, is intended to reflect this growing trend and includes e-books, a publisher's online addenda to a printed book, an experiment in the novel as a blog and sites about the impact of digital technologies upon writing.
  • EU Referendum

    Following the announcement in May 2015 that there would be a referendum on the UK’s EU membership; curators at the Bodleian Libraries, Oxford, started a collection of websites to capture the debate. The collection captures debates around ‘Brexit’ as well as the wider context of UK/EU relations, including: Media coverage, websites of political parties and other political institutions and groups campaigning and lobbying trade unions, professional organisations, businesses academic debate culture and arts public opinion through blogs, comments, and if possible social media. Some items in the collection are whole websites; others are a single news story or blog post.
  • Easter Rising

    The 1916 Easter Rising was a pivotal moment in modern Irish history. It transformed the political landscape, paving the way for Irish independence, while also leaving a contentious legacy. The Rising, or more particularly the centenary of the events in Dublin in 1916, is being explored and represented in new ways thanks to technology and the work of colleagues at Trinity College Dublin and the Bodleian Libaries, University of Oxford. During 2016 they built and curated a collection of websites related to the commemoration.
  • Ebola Outbreak, West Africa 2014

    The West African Ebola virus epidemic (2013–2016) was the most widespread outbreak of Ebola virus disease in history—causing major loss of life and socioeconomic disruption in the region, mainly in the countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. This collection of websites was curated by staff at the Bodleian Library Oxford, focussing on the UK response to the disaster.
  • Energy

    This collection, initiated in 2012 by a member of the British Library Science Team and developed by staff across the UK Legal Deposit Libraries, looks at energy technology and production, focussing on scientific research, engineering technologies and energy policy & regulation. It includes websites from academic research organisations, energy companies, industry organisations, suppliers & manufacturers, and trade associations.
  • English Churches

    Collection focussing on churches in England. Curated by staff at the British Library.
  • European Parliament Elections 2009

    This collection of around 200 Internet sites was curated during and immediately after the European Parliament election campaign of 2009 by staff at the British Library. It consists of a representative sample of Pan-European, national and regional political party sites, candidate's campaign sites and blogs, manifestos of civil society organisations at national and European level, and comment from the traditional press, political analysts in academia, and individuals and communities sharing their thoughts online.
  • European Parliament Elections 2014

    This collection of archived websites focusses on the 2014 European Parliament elections held on Thursday 22 May 2014. The websites, curated by staff at the Legal Deposit Libraries, have a UK focus and include campaign sites, press & media comment, interest groups and official party websites.
  • European Parliament Elections 2019

    This collection of archived websites focusses on the 2019 European Parliament elections, the UK component of which was held on Thursday 23rd May 2019. The websites, curated by staff at the Legal Deposit Libraries, have a UK focus and include campaign sites, press & media comment, interest groups and official party websites.
  • FTSE 100

    This collection, curated by staff at the British Library, includes the corporate websites of the 100 companies listed on the London Stock Exchange. The Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 Index, also called the FTSE 100 Index, FTSE 100, FTSE, or, informally, the "Footsie", is a share index of the 100 companies listed on the London Stock Exchange with the highest market capitalisation. It is seen as a gauge of prosperity for businesses regulated by UK company law. The index is maintained by the FTSE Group, a subsidiary of the London Stock Exchange Group.
  • Family History

    A collection of websites curated by staff at the UK Legal Deposit Libraries aiming to gather genealogy online resources.
  • Fashion

    Websites selected around the theme of fashion including the history of fashion, the fashion business and style blogs. Curated by staff at the British Library from 2012 onwards.
  • First World War Centenary, 2014-18

    This collection includes a huge variety of websites related to the First World War (1914-1918), particularly the various events which took place in the Centenary period 2014-2018. The collection also includes resources about the history of the war; academic sites on the meaning of the conflict in modern memory and patterns of memorialisation and critical reflections on British involvement in armed conflict more generally. Staff at the British Library worked with the Heritage Lottery Fund to take archival copies of the websites of all HLF-funded First World War Centenary projects.
  • Food Archive

    A food related collection initiated in 2017 by staff at the British Library, covering these topics: Food Production (including farming, manufacture, packaging, logistics, marketing and retail) Cookery and Recipes Food History Food Activism Food Politics and Policy Diet and Health Restaurants and Eating Out Food Research
  • Forth Bridge 125th Anniversary

    The world famous Forth Bridge opened on March 4th 1890, immediately becoming the world’s longest cantilever bridge, a position it still holds today. This collection of websites, curated by staff at the National Library of Scotland, focusses on the 125th anniversary of the Bridge in 2015 and the special events held throughout 2015 to mark this historic milestone.
  • G8 Summit 2005

    Selection of web sites relating to the summit of the G8 leaders held at Gleneagles, Scotland, 6th - 8th July 2005, curated by staff at the National Library of Scotland.
  • Gaelic life on the web

    This collection focusses on Scottish Gaelic and related sites published in the UK. Originally based on the work of a Gaelic Digital Assistant appointed from June 2016 to July 2017 in the National Library of Scotland to identify and collect Gaelic websites and social media. The collection is currently being updated.
  • Gender Equality

    This collection, initiated by staff at the UK Legal Deposit Libraries in 2018, gives an insight into attitudes in the UK relating to gender equality. The collection includes material relating to bodily autonomy; domestic abuse, gender equality in the workplace; gender identity; the gender pay gap; parenting; and women’s suffrage, including material relating to the centenary of the 1918 Representation of the Peoples Act.
  • Genetics

    This collection on Genetics was initiated in 2010 by curators at the Wellcome Library and Science Reference staff at the British Library. The collection is ongoing, including contributions by staff at Cambridge University Library.
  • Global UK

    A collection of websites, curated by staff at the UK Legal Deposit Libraries, representing various global communities living in the UK. Each sub-category focuses on communities from particular countries or regions from outside the UK. The collection is in the very early stages of development and will grow to represent more communities over time.
  • Governing the Police

    For almost half a century police authorities in England and Wales fulfilled their role of ensuring that the public had an efficient and effective local police force. This system was replaced by a single elected individual (a Police & Crime Commissioner) following the Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011, and elections on Thursday 15th November 2012. This collection contains snapshots of all 41 police authority sites at or near the changeover date of 20th November. It also includes sites from the newly elected Police and Crime Commissioners, and selected sites relating to the first elections of 2012. It also includes the sites of the police forces and associated organisations in Scotland superseded by the Police Service of Scotland from April 2013, under the terms of the Police and Fire Reform (Scotland) Act 2012.
  • Government in Wales/ Llywodraeth yng Nghymru

    The ‘Government in Wales’ collection consists of many websites collected by the National Library of Wales since 2007 relating to all forms of Government across Wales. Mae casgliad ‘Llywodraeth yng Nghymru’ yn cynnwys nifer o wefannau a gasglwyd gan Lyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru ers 2007 yn ymwneud â phob math o lywodraeth yng Nghymru.
  • Grenfell Tower Fire

    The Grenfell Tower fire broke out on 14 June 2017 in the 24-storey Grenfell Tower block of flats in North Kensington, West London leading to the death of over 70 people. This collection brings together some of the websites, news articles and social media accounts related to the fire.
  • Hampshire Collection

    Website collection about Hampshire curated by staff at Hampshire Archives and Local Studies from 2008 onwards.
  • Health and Social Care Act 2012 - NHS Reforms

    The Health and Social Care Act 2012 brought in the most extensive reorganisation of the structure of the National Health Service in England to date. It removed responsibility for the health of citizens from the Secretary of State for Health, which the post had carried since the inception of the NHS in 1948. It abolished NHS primary care trusts (PCTs) and Strategic Health Authorities (SHAs) and transferred between £60 billion and £80 billion of "commissioning", or health care funds, from the abolished PCTs to several hundred "clinical commissioning groups", partly run by the general practitioners (GPs) in England but a major point of access for private service providers. A new executive agency of the Department of Health, Public Health England, was established under the Act on 1 April 2013. The websites in this collection, selected by staff at the British Library, include those of the Primary Care Trusts (PCTs), Public health agencies, health and wellbeing boards, Acute trusts, Clinical Commissioning Groups, LINks and their successor bodies, professional bodies, Royal Colleges, unions, Private Sector Care providers, Health Care organisations, charities, patient’s groups, political parties, MPs, Central Government, the Department of Health, regulatory bodies, Local Councils, the Press/news, opposing groups/commentators, blogs, twitter feeds, social media, scholarly institutions and research organisations.
  • History of Libraries Collection

    This collection focusses on the history of libraries and librarianship in the UK; from the establishment of early cathedral libraries to the technological advancements of the late 20th century up until the year 2000. The sub category of this collection, the “Evolving role of libraries” focusses on library developments after this year. Curated by staff at the UK Legal Deposit Libraries.
  • History of the Book

    A collection focused on the history of book printing and publishing. The collection was initiated by staff at the UK Legal Deposit Libraries in 2015 and is ongoing.
  • Housing and Social Housing

    This collection of websites focusses on a wide range of housing issues, including but not limited to, private renting, social housing, squatting, access to benefits, homelessness, and co-operative housing. It was initiated by staff at the UK Legal Deposit Libraries in 2016.
  • Independent Arts Organisations

    This collection will bring together independent arts organisations from around the UK – providing an overview of activity that is inherently itinerant and ephemeral. This collection will also provide an insight into how artists and curators are using current technologies and advancements in networking to promote and showcase their activity.
  • Independent and free churches in England

    This collection of websites has been selected around the theme of Free Church religion. The Free Churches (successively known in previous generations as Dissenters and Nonconformists) formally emerged in the seventeenth century. They originally comprised individuals and denominations refusing to conform to the doctrines and practices of the Church of England but have come to include a large number of evangelical and renewal movements which have grown up quite independently of the established Church. Most, but not all, of them are trinitarian. The major categories, in terms of numerical strength, currently comprise Baptist, Methodist, Reformed and Pentecostal. In addition to the websites included in this collection, there is a separate special collection for the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers).
  • Indian Ocean Tsunami December 2004

    A collection documenting the effects, aftermath and human responses to the 26 December 2004 tsunami disaster in Asia. The sites were collected by staff at the British Library between January-March 2005 and include those of aid organisations, charities, sites set up to raise relief donations, those established to record personal experiences, and the response of religious communites to this event.
  • Intellectual Property Decision Transcripts

    This collection includes the transcripts of decisions by the UK Intellectual Property Office (IPO) in patents, trade marks, and designs. It also archives the Company Names Tribunal website. The collection was initiated in 2019 by a Subject Librarian in the British Library Business and IP, Research Services team.
  • Isle of Man

    This collection of websites was initiated in 2011 by staff at Manx National Heritage, Eiraght Ashoonagh Vannin.
  • Jersey Collection

    Jersey Archive is responsible for preserving and providing access to the Island’s unique written cultural heritage. Increasingly this means that archivists need to start looking at ways in which we can archive digital information including websites and social media. This collection of websites curated by staff at Jersey Archive will become a part of Jersey’s evolving history.
  • LGBTQ+ Lives Online

    2017 marked the 50th anniversary of the Sexual Offences Act, which partially decriminalised homosexuality. Over this time LGBTQ+ (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, Queer/Questioning) issues have moved from something scarcely mentioned – in fact barely legal - into the mainstream. The British Library’s collections of LGBTQ+ printed materials go back almost 500 years and, augmented by more recent material in the Sound Archive, provide a unique resource for research into the subject. This collection of websites augments these collections as well as the collections of the other five UK legal deposit libraries to reflect comptemporary aspects of LGBTQ+ life in modern Britain.
  • Latin America UK

    A collection of Internet sites produced by Latin American communities in the UK or by UK organisations with direct links to these communities and to the region. The sites archived include those of charities, educational and support groups, solidarity campaigns, Anglo-Latin American societies, news and information services for Latin Americans in the UK, commercial and cultural organisations and one-off events.
  • Live Art

    The Live Art Collection was initiated in late 2008 and is maintained by the British Library in collaboration with the Live Art Development Agency, London. Live Art is an innovative exploratory approach to contemporary performance practices. The range of websites in this collection includes organizations supporting, promoting and curating Live Art; artists’ websites; sites that are artistic or project-driven by their nature; blogsites and online spaces engaging in critical reviews; through to online archival sites relating to Live Art. This collection represents the diverse practices and approaches of artists today and the support and critical frameworks that exist to support, promote and comment upon Live Art and the ephemeral nature of this area of practice. This project was revisited in 2017 with new websites added to the collection.
  • Local History Societies

    Initated in 2013 by staff at the UK Legal Deposit Libraries, this is a growing collection of websites of UK local history societies, associations and groups.
  • London French Special Collection

    This collection of websites was curated inbetween 2012 and 2014 by Dr. Saskia Huc-Hepher, a Senior Lecturer at the University of Westminster, on the subject of the French community in London. The Collection was a fundamental component of Dr. Huc-Hepher's thesis on the French community in London. It is hoped that the collection will serve both as an innovative dataset and as a means of reaching out to a diverse range of audiences.
  • London Mayoral Election 2008

    This collection of websites focuses on the London mayoral election which took place on the 1st May 2008. The election was the third London mayoral election, the previous elections being held in 2000 and 2004. The 2008 election was won by Conservative party candidate Boris Johnson. The collection includes websites of the main candidates, as well as opinion sites and commentaries. Sites were gathered from the 1st April 2008 until 31st May 2008 by members of staff at the British Library.
  • London Terrorist Attack 7th July 2005

    Collection of Internet sites with content about the terrorist attacks in London on July 7th 2005 begun immediately after the event. The collection comprises news and commentary, public information and support for victims and weblogs written by those who had first hand experience of the bombs. The collection was curated by staff at the British Library.
  • Magic

    2017 marks the 20th anniversary of the publication of Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone. The National Library of Scotland and the British Library have curated a collection of Harry Potter themed websites to mark this significant literary milestone.
  • Magna Carta 2015

    This collection of websites was curated by staff at the British Library in 2015 in parallel to an exhibition to mark the 800th anniversary of the Magna Carta. The wider scope of this collection includes the themes power, rule of law, human rights and societal values.
  • Margaret Thatcher

    This collection of websites was curated by staff at the British Library following the death of Margaret Thatcher on 8 April 2013. Baroness Thatcher (1925 – 2013) was a British stateswoman who was Prime Minister of the UK from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century, and the first woman to have held the office. A Soviet journalist dubbed her The Iron Lady, a nickname that became popularly associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style.
  • Men's Issues

    A collection of websites curated by staff at the Wellcome Library in London in between 2005 and 2013. The collection is designed to reflect issues that affect men including health, social and personal issues.
  • Mental Health

    A collection of websites initiated by staff at the Wellcome Library in 2005. The collection includes websites addressing issues of mental health and its effects as well as support and research organisations. There is a sub section of this collection entitled, Mental Health, Social Media and the Internet, curated by staff at the Bodleian Libraries.
  • Methodism

    This Collection of websites was initiated by Dr Clive D Field, O.B.E in 2010.
  • Muslims, Trust and Cultural Dialogue

    Muslims, Trust and Cultural Dialogue is an RCUK-funded international research project that explores trust between Muslims and non-Muslims in Britain, Europe and North America. The project analyses the conditions of trust and mistrust in three overlapping areas of modern life: politics and society; business and finance; and art and culture. It is an international multidisciplinary network of scholars, practitioners and stakeholders exploring questions of trust in the relationship between Muslim diaspora populations in the West and the societies around them. The project is committed to understanding how existing practices in these three arenas enact dialogue and negotiation between groups in ways that can be mutually informative, and which help us move beyond misunderstanding and negative stereotyping. - See more at:
  • NHS

    The National Health Service is the umbrella term for the publicly funded healthcare systems of the United Kingdom. It is made up of a wide range of different organisations with different roles, responsibilities and specialities. These organisations provide a variety of services and support to patients and carers. This collection will, in time, offer a one-stop-shop for access to primary materials about the NHS. The collection will focus exclusively on official websites of NHS bodies with selective commentary and analysis together with the websites of think tanks and research centres. It will include Twitter feeds where they exist. The collection was initiated in March 2020 by the British Library's Government and Official Information Team in partnership with the other UK Legal Deposit Libraries.
  • National Assembly for Wales Election 2011

    This collection of websites focuses on the election for the National Assembly for Wales in 2011. The Assembly was established in 1999, but the fourth Assembly, would be the first to have full lawmaking powers in devolved areas. The election resulted in gains for the Labour and Conservative parties and losses for the Welsh Liberal Democrats and Plaid Cymru but with no party having an overall majority. Following the election, Carwyn Jones AM, leader of the Labour group was elected as First Minister and formed a government. Etholiad Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru 2011 Mae'r casgliad hwn o wefannau yn canolbwyntio ar yr etholiad i Gynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru yn 2011. Sefydlwyd y Cynulliad yn 1999, ond y Pedwerydd Cynulliad, fyddai’r cyntaf i gael pwerau deddfu llawn mewn meysydd sydd wedi'u datganoli. Canlyniad yr etholiad oedd enillion ar gyfer y Blaid Lafur a’r Ceidwadwyr a cholledion ar gyfer Democratiaid Rhyddfrydol Cymru a Phlaid Cymru, ond heb unrhyw blaid gyda mwyafrif. Yn dilyn yr etholiad, etholwyd Carwyn Jones AC, arweinydd y grŵp Llafur, yn Brif Weinidog a ffurfiodd lywodraeth.
  • Nelson Mandela

    This collection of websites was curated by staff at the British Library following the death of Nelson Mandela on 5 December 2013. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (1918 – 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country's first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress (ANC) party from 1991 to 1997.
  • New Media Writing Prize

    This collection includes websites for shortlisted works and winners of the New Media Writing Prize, as well as relevant online contextual information such as author’s websites and blog reviews. The New Media Writing Prize was established in the UK in 2010 by Bournemouth University, with the purpose of showcasing and rewarding innovative examples of digital interactive storytelling. This collection was established in 2020-21 and curated by staff at the British Library in collaboration with staff at Bournemouth University. For more details, please refer to the New Media Writing Prize (NMWP) Collection Scoping Document on the British Library Research Repository.
  • News Sites

    Collection of UK online news publications curated by subject specialists at the UK Legal Deposit Libraries. The sites are archived on either a daily or weekly basis. The collection does not just include newspaper's websites, but web-only news sites, community journalism sites (hyperlocals), news broadcasters’ sites, news parody sites and more.
  • Northern Ireland

    Collection of websites relating to Northern Ireland, a constituent country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, intended to reflect a wide range of related issues such as economy, environment, culture, heritage and tourism. The collection is ongoing.
  • Northern Irish Churches

    Collection initiated in 2017 by staff at the UK Legal Deposit Libraries, focussing on churches in Northern Ireland.
  • Nursing in the UK

    This collection was started in 2020 by the Royal College of Nursing History of Nursing Forum. 2020 marked 200 years since the birth of Florence Nightingale and was designated by the World Health Organisation as the International Year of the Nurse and Midwife. Instead of celebrating these milestones, 2020 saw our nursing staff across the NHS and independent nursing at the forefront of COVID-19. Nursing is the largest profession in the UK, in 2020 there were over 700,000 registered nurses - not including nursing associates and health care professionals. Nursing first became a registered profession in the UK in 1919 and remains approximately 90% women. One in every five nurses, midwives and health visitors in the NHS is from a black and minority ethnic (BME) background. This collection aims to reflect the breadth and depth of our nursing community of practice, which is diverse in terms of geography, clinical specialisms, ethnicity and special interests. The collection includes content from the four branches of nursing – adult, children, mental health and learning disability. Individuals, specialist community networks and the history of nursing are included. It does not cover dental or veterinary nursing which are different professions. Nominations to develop in the collection are welcomed.
  • Online Enthusiast Communities in the UK

    This collection was initiated in 2016 and curated by staff and graduate trainee digital archivists at the Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford. It captures how UK based public forums are used to discuss hobbies and activities and serve as a place for enthusiasts to converse with others sharing similar interests. It gives an insight into how hobbyists of the British public are using the internet right now to further their social and recreational activities, and show the use of online communities in an everyday, routine manner rather than providing reactions to a particular event. The range of interests covered by online communities within the UK is surprisingly vast – it is possible to find anything from the more traditional areas, such as stamp collecting and cycling, to the more esoteric, such as a community for those dedicated to turning their raspberry pi computers into retro gaming machines.
  • Oral History in the UK

    The Oral History in the UK collection was initiated in 2012 and is maintained by the Oral History section of the British Library. The websites in this collection have been selected to demonstrate the variety of ways in which Oral History is used by community and local history groups, charities and universities. The range of websites in this collection includes sites which document the experiences of those that emmigrated to the UK (such as the Birmingham Black Oral History Project and Moroccan Memories in Britain); local history (Durham in Time, St. Helier Memories); disability history (Speaking Up For Disability); industry in the UK (Songs of Steel); and memories of war (The Workers' War, Captive Memories). The websites vary widely in the way they present oral history; many, although not all, provide access to extracts from oral history audio or video archive material and most sites also provide information on the project background, participants and funding arrangements. Websites will continue to be nominated for inclusion in the UK Web Archive and added to the 'Oral History in the UK' collection. if you would like to nominate any content to the collection you can fill in the online form:
  • Pandemic Outbreaks

    This collection of websites was initiated in 2005 to contingency plan around any possible outbreak of Avian flu in the UK. It has since been expanded to include all types of Pandemic flu such as the Swine flu outbreak of 2009 and the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in 2020. The collection contains public advisory sites produced by the Government alongside news and commentary.
  • Parliamentary Archives

    A collection of websites published by the UK Parliament, including Twitter feeds. The collection was initiated in 2018 by staff at the UK Legal Deposit Libraries.
  • Philately, Deltiology and Postal History

    This collection of philately websites was initiated in 2005 by staff at the UK Legal Deposit Libraries. It contains subjects such as postal history, special stamp issues, auction catalogues, collector's forums and new stamps. As of 2021, websites relating to the study of postcards have been included.
  • Poetry Zines and Journals

    This collection of UK-based online poetry journals and magazines has been curated by a PhD candidate at Goldsmiths. It is concerned with contemporary responses to the increasing ubiquity of the internet and networked culture. Poetry communities are increasingly emerging out of and operating within digital spaces; participants are using social media for networking, collaboration and promotion, taking advantage of cheap web hosting and free blog domains to publish zines and chapbooks.
  • Political Action and Communication

    This collection aims to represent and document the use of the web in political engagement in the UK: from single-authored blogs through local and grassroots campaigns to political parties and charities and trusts that support democratic engagement and activism. The collection also includes examples of research into levels of democratic engagement, and the use of communications technology in campaigning and activism.
  • Quakers

    This collection of websites was initated in 2009. Websites were selected by the Library of the Religious Society of Friends in Britain (Quakers) and maintained by the British Library. It includes sites relating to Quaker activity in Britain, such as Quaker meetings, groups and campaigns, centres, schools and communities, businesses and blogs.
  • Religion, politics and law since 2005

    A collection of sites touching on issues relating to the place of religious ideas in the public sphere in the UK since 2005. It includes sites of official church bodies, as well as campaigning organisations both religious and secularist. Also included are sites concerned with parliamentary politics, along with others connected with the law and with contested issues such as the law on abortion, assisted suicide, and religion in state education. Those religious sites chosen are predominantly Christian in origin, but not exclusively so.
  • Royal Colleges of Health and Medicine

    This is a collection of the UK Royal Colleges of Health and Medicine's websites instigated by the Library and Archive Service at the Royal College of Nursing in 2019. The Royal Colleges are the professional bodies responsible for development of and training in one or more medical specialities in the UK.
  • Russia in the UK

    Curation of this collection started in 2017 and is on-going. This collection has been curated by Hannah Connell, a collaborative doctoral student at the British Library and King’s College London. The selection of the content for the Russia in the UK collection forms part of a Collaborative Doctoral Partnership Studentship researching migration and diaspora through Russian-language publishing. This collection reflects the ways in which diasporic communities continue to preserve and contribute to a shared identity though new forms of media today. In preserving and indexing the online presence of the Russian-speaking community in the UK, this collection also contributes to the British Library’s knowledge of the communities which create and use its collections. For more details, please refer to the Russia in the UK Collection Scoping Document:
  • Russian Revolution Centenary

    This collection of websites was initiated by the British Library's Lead Curator of East European Collections in 2017 and includes websites selected by staff at the UK Legal Deposit Libraries. The collection marks 100 years since the October Revolution (1917 - 2017).
  • Science Collection

    In 2020 we started to review and organise science content within the UK Web Archive. A Science, Technology, Engineering & Medicine (STEM) subject librarian managed this task. The collection is tagged according to the standard divisions of the sciences under Universal Decimal Classification, using the names as listed as follows: Agriculture, Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, Communications, Earth sciences, Engineering, Physics. The collection will not cover computer science or information technology as there is already a web archive collection for this subject area. Science is also represented by several curated collections within the UK Web Archive, dealing with specific subjects such as disease pandemics, science at Cambridge University, the Medical Royal Colleges, and the late Stephen Hawking. We are continually building our science collections in the UK Web Archive.
  • Scottish Churches

    A collection of websites created between 2016 and 2019 of places of Christian worship in Scotland and the denominations to which the belong, reflecting the national activities of church communities as well as those at local level. Created by the National Library of Scotland, Trevor Thomson.
  • Scottish Government

    The Scottish Government collection includes archived sites of public bodies and agencies in Scotland, a full A-Z list begins at the bottom of the page. Main Scottish Government site:; see also: A collection of Scottish Government sites made by prior to March 2013 is available here: This collection is maintained by the National Library of Scotland.
  • Scottish Independence Referendum

    On the 18th September 2014 voters were asked ‘should Scotland be an independent country’. The results of this vote saw the electorate voting 55.3% in favour of remaining within the UK. For the first time in the UK, and specifically for that vote, 16 and 17 year olds were eligible to cast their ballots. Those born in other parts of the UK but resident in Scotland at the time of the vote were also eligible to vote, while those born in Scotland but no longer living there were not. These archived sites form part of a larger collection of books, reports, serials, and material such as flyers, leaflets, etc., as well as moving image, sound and archival material made by the National Library of Scotland; for further information visit the Library's Scottish Independence Referendum 2014 Collection page:
  • Scottish Parliamentary Election 2016

    A collection of sites belonging to candidates, political parties and campaigning groups active during the Scottish Parliamentary elections in 2016. The collection was curated by staff at the National Library of Scotland.
  • Slavery and Abolition in the Caribbean

    The year 2007 saw the bicentenary of the abolition of the British slave trade. In 2007 the Internet was an important engagement space for museums, archives, libraries and various other institutions relaying the history of slavery and marking the bicentenary. This collection includes, but is not confined to, sites relating to that bicentenary, and includes resources from a range of UK government, heritage, local history and other organisations on the enactment, abolition and consequences of slavery in the Caribbean. The collection was curated by a content expert at the British Library.
  • Smoking Ban UK 2007

    This collection was created by staff at the UK Legal Deposit Libraries to record events surrounding, and responses to, the ban on smoking in all public places across the UK in 2007.
  • Spending Cuts 2010: Impact on Social Welfare

    This is a collection of selected websites archived by staff at the UK Legal Deposit Libraries from May 2010 to February 2013 focusing on the impacts of the public spending cuts implemented by the Coalition Government following the 2010 General Election. The collection contains UK central and local government sites, public policy documents and responses, news and commentary, and relevant pages from the sites of think tanks, charities, pressure and protest groups, individual anti-cuts campaigners and trade unions.
  • Sports: Football

    This collection of football websites was initiated by staff at the UK Legal Deposit Libraries in 2017. The collection covers most codes of football such as soccer, rugby, and Gaelic football. For all other Gaelic sports see the general Sports Collection.
  • Sports: International Events

    This collection includes websites about some of the international sporting events that have been hosted by the UK, or where their was a strong British presence at the event. It has been curated by staff at the UK Legal Deposit Libraries.
  • Start Ups in the UK

    This collection is a selection of UK company websites, that were at the time of adding to the collection were defined as a start up. A startup is a young company founded by one or more entrepreneurs to develop a unique product or service and bring it to market. By its nature, the typical startup tends to be a shoestring operation.
  • Stephen Hawking

    Stephen Hawking was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death on the 14 March 2018, Cambridge. The collection is maintained by staff at the UK Legal Deposit Libraries.
  • Terry Pratchett

    This collection gathers together a selection of websites relating to the life and work of Terry Pratchett (1948-2015), the well-known author of the Discworld fantasy novels. The collection has been curated by staff at Trinity College Dublin.
  • The Queen's Diamond Jubilee, 2012

    This is a special collection of websites selected by the Royal Archives, the British Library and the Institute of Historical Research around a subject of topical interest and national importance to the UK, the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II, 2012. The collection includes archived copies of websites produced by the Royal Household together with a wide range of related material such as Blogs, commentaries and news articles.
  • The Queen's Official Birthday 2016

    This collection of websites was curated by staff at the Britisih Library to mark the Queen's 90th birthday in 2016.
  • UK Company Websites

    This collection of UK Companies websites was iniatied by Reference Specialist staff in the British Library's Business and IP Centre in 2019. According to the UK Parliament there were 5.9 million businesses in the UK in 2019. A large proportion of these have websites of some description, though increasing some businesses exist solely on social media. We cannot hope to collect all of these websites within the special collection however the we will attempt to include as many as possible, ranging from one page of a local restaurant to multipage sites of large retailers or multinational manufacturers. The structure of the collection is based on the format of the UK SIC (Standard Industrial Classification) codes but adapted for use in this particular context.
  • UK General Election 2005

    Collection of websites, curated by staff at the Legal Deposit Libraries, archived during and immediately after the UK general election campaign of 2005. The collection comprises a sample of candidate’s campaign sites and weblogs, local and national party sites, opinion polls, news and commentary, and the manifestos of a range of interest groups.
  • UK General Election 2010

    Collection of websites curated by staff at the Legal Deposit Libraries, archived during and immediately after the UK General Election campaign of 2010. The collection comprises a sample of candidate’s campaign sites and weblogs, local and national party sites, opinion polls, news and commentary, regulatory materials and the campaign websites and manifestos of a range of interest groups. Many of the sites chosen encourage public engagement and interactivity.
  • UK General Election 2015

    Collection of websites, curated by staff at the Legal Deposit Libraries, focussing on the 2015 UK General Election which was held on 7 May 2015 to elect 650 members to the House of Commons. It was the first general election at the end of a fixed-term Parliament.
  • UK General Election 2017

    Collection of websites, curated by staff at the Legal Deposit Libraries, focussing on the United Kingdom general election of 2017 which took place on Thursday 8 June. Under the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 an election had not been due until 7 May 2020, but a call by Prime Minister Theresa May for a snap election was ratified by the necessary supermajority in a 522-13 vote in the House of Commons on 19 April 2017.
  • UK response to Typhoon Haiyan (Philippines) 2013

    On the 8th November 2013 Typhoon Haiyan (also known as Yolanda), the strongest storm ever recorded at landfall, hit the Philippines, causing at least 6,200 fatalities. With more than 25,000 people injured, an estimated 4 million people homeless and the infrastructure of whole regions destroyed, the Philippines faced a humanitarian crisis. This collection captures internet sites with content about the UK response to Typhoon Haiyan, including news and commentary from national and regional news sites, information and appeals from charity and aid organisations’ websites, Government pages, community group websites and blogs from immediately after the typhoon in November 2013 until January 2014. The websites in this collection have been selected by staff at the Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford to reflect the diversity of the UK’s humanitarian aid response to Typhoon Haiyan, but also the political response, and emerging debates such as climate change and its impact on severe weather events, or the structures and efficiency of foreign aid in general.
  • UK retail industry: changes on the high street

    The UK retail industry has undergone dramatic change over the last decade. As consumer expectations change and societies become more driven by the need for sustainability, consumer goods and retail companies are having to transform to survive. The objective of this collection is to preserve web resources, which are expected to be of interest to future researchers. Additional criteria that inform the selection process include whether content is only published on the web, whether a website is at risk of being lost, and whether selection would result in a more comprehensive collection.
  • UK/India Year of Culture 2017

    In 2017 the UK and India celebrated a major bilateral year of cultural exchange. The year marked the 70th anniversary of Indian independence and, through a varied programme of projects and events – led by the Ministry of Culture in India, the Nehru Centre and other Indian cultural organisations in the UK and the British Council – aimed to highlight India-UK cultural relations. This website collection was curated by staff at the British Library.
  • VE /VJ Day 70th Anniversary 1945-2015

    2015 marked 70 years since the Allied Powers celebrated the end of war in Europe and in the Far East. Victory in Europe Day, generally known as VE Day, was the public holiday celebrated on 8 May 1945 to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces. Commemorations were held to mark the 70th Anniversary of the Victory over Japan Day on Saturday 15 August 2015. The Japanese finally surrendered on 14 August 1945 following the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The next day, Wednesday 15 August 1945 was celebrated as VJ (Victory over Japan) Day. This website collection was curated by staff at the British Library.
  • Video Games

    This collection focusses on computer games in the UK and the surrounding culture and impact on society. Sub-themes include: games sites, forums, enthusiast sites and FAQs/walkthroughs, advertising, emulation, research/education. The collection was curated by staff at the UK Legal Deposit Libraries.
  • Web Comic Archive

    This collection contains online webcomics published in the United Kingdom. The comics cover a wide variety of subjects and are produced by a diverse range of creators, including many voices not frequently represented in traditional publishing. The collection includes examples of renowned (and sometimes award-winning) webcomics, as well as independently produced comics which may not be as well-known. Due to current technological restrictions in capturing online material (as of 2017), some elements of these items (such as embedded video) may not appear within the archived item as they did when published online. The collection was curated by Jennifer Aggleton, a doctoral placement student at the British Library.
  • Welsh Language/ Iaith Gymraeg

    2018 marks 25 years since the passing of the Welsh Language Act in 1993 which gives effect to the principle that in the conduct of public business and the administration of justice in Wales the English and Welsh languages should be treated ‘on the basis of equality’. The powers given to the Secretary of State for Wales under this Act were later devolved to the National Assembly for Wales in 1997. Over the past 25 years, an underlying theme has been looking at ways to promote and facilitate the use of the Welsh language in all walks of life. This is a collection of websites relating to the Welsh language collected by the UK Web Archive______________________________________________________________ Eleni, 2018, mae'n bum mlynedd ar hugain o flynyddoedd ers i Ddeddf yr Iaith Gymraeg 1993 ddod i rym, deddf sydd yn gweithredu'r egwyddor y dylid trin y Gymraeg a'r Saesneg ar sail eu bod yn gyfartal wrth gynnal busnes cyhoeddus a gweinyddu cyfiawnder yng Nghymru. Yn ddiweddarach yn 1997, datganolwyd y grymoedd a roddwyd i Ysgrifennydd Gwladol Cymru o dan y ddeddf hon i Gynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru. Yn ystod y pum mlynedd ar hugain ddiwethaf mae hi wedi bod yn nod sylfaenol polisi cyhoeddus yng Nghymru i edrych ar ffyrdd o hybu a hwyluso defnydd o'r Gymraeg ym mhob agwedd ar fywyd. Mae hwn yn gasgliad o wefannau sydd yn ymwneud â'r Gymraeg ac sydd wedi eu casglu gan Archif We y Deyrnas Gyfunol.
  • Welsh devolution referendum 2011

    This collection of websites focuses on the referendum on the powers of the National Assembly for Wales, held on March 3rd 2011. Following the coalition agreement between Labour and Plaid Cymru, signed after the 2007 Assembly election, a further referendum was held in 2011 on granting the Assembly the power to make laws without having to first seek permission from the UK Parliament. Mae'r casgliad hwn o wefannau yn canolbwyntio ar y refferendwm ar bwerau i'r Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru, a gynhaliwyd ar Fawrth 3ydd 2011. Yn dilyn y cytundeb clymblaid rhwng Llafur a Phlaid Cymru, wedi'i lofnodi ar ôl etholiadau'r Cynulliad yn 2007, cynhaliwyd refferendwm pellach yn 2011 ar ganiatáu i'r Cynulliad y pŵer i wneud cyfreithiau heb orfod yn gyntaf i ofyn am ganiatâd gan Senedd y DU.
  • Women's Issues

    This collection of web sites about women's issues was curated by the Women's Library at LSE (the London School of Economics and Political Science) Women's Library, in collaboration with the British Library inbetween 2005 and 2013. The collection includes sites of women's organisations and campaigns, research reports, government publications and statistics pertaining to women, personal sites of women, such as blogs, and women focused e-zines.
  • Zika Virus Outbreak, South America 2015-16

    Special Collection of websites curated by a member of staff at the British Library, concerning the UK perspective of the South American Zika virus outbreak in 2015-16. The outbreak began in April 2015 in Brazil, and spread to other countries in South America, Central America, North America, and the Caribbean. In January 2016, the World Health Organisation said the virus was likely to spread throughout most of the Americas by the end of the year; and in February 2016, the WHO declared the cluster of microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome cases reported in Brazil – strongly suspected to be associated with the Zika outbreak – a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. It was estimated that 1.5 million people were infected by Zika in Brazil, with over 3,500 cases of microcephaly reported between October 2015 and January 2016. The collection gives and insight into the UK reactions and perception of this public health emergency.
  • Zines and Fanzines

    A collection of online zines and fanzines published in the UK, curated by staff at the British Library. The collection is ongoing.